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We will review them briefly, to provide not only a classification of general value, but also an appreciation of the nature of the problem and the challenges that face us. Overt Disasters Overt disasters are environmental releases which leave no ambiguity about their sources and their potential harm.
Examples are Seveso, Bhopal and Chernobyl. Seveso plays the role of prototype for chemical industrial disasters Homberger et al. The accident took place on 10 July in the Seveso area, close to Milan, Italy, in a plant where trichlorophenol was produced, and it caused the contamination of several square kilometres of populated countryside by the powerfully toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD.
More than people were evacuated, and restrictions were applied to another 30, inhabitants. The most clearly established health effect was chloracne, but the picture of health consequences possibly linked to this incident has not yet been completed Bruzzi ; Pesatori Bhopal represents, probably, the worst chemical industrial disaster ever Das a, b; Friedrich Naumann Foundation ; Tachakra On the night of 2 Decembera gas leak caused a deadly cloud to spread over the city of Bhopal, in central India, leaving thousands dead and hundreds of thousands injured in the space of a few hours.
The accident occurred because of a runaway reaction in one of the tanks in which methyl isocyanate MIC was stored.
The concrete storage tank, containing some 42 tons of this compound, which was used to manufacture pesticides, burst open and vented MIC and other breakdown chemicals into the air. Slow-Onset Disasters Slow-onset disasters may become apparent only because human targets happen to be on the release path, or because, as time passes, some environmental evidence of a threat from noxious materials crops up.
In unusual neurological disorders began to strike people living in fishing villages along Minamata Bay, Japan. After numerous investigations, poisoned fish emerged as the probable culprit, and in the disease was produced experimentally by feeding cats with fish caught in the bay.
The following year, the suggestion was put forward that the clinical picture of kibyo, which included polyneuritis, cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness, was similar to that due to poisoning by alkyl mercury compounds.
A source of organic mercury had to be sought, and it was eventually found in a factory discharging its effluent into Minamata Bay. The area had been used as a chemical and municipal disposal site over a period of about 30 years, until Homes were later built next to the landfill.
In the late s, there were complaints of chemical odours in home basements, and chemical leaching in areas surrounding the site began to be reported with increasing frequency over time. In the s, residents began to fear that a serious threat to their health could arise, and this shared perception prompted environmental and health investigations to be carried out.
None of the published studies could conclusively support a causal link between exposure to chemicals at the disposal site and adverse health effects among the residents.
Yet, there is no doubt that serious social and psychological consequences have resulted among the population in the area, particularly those who were evacuated Holden Mass Food Poisonings Outbreaks of food poisoning can be caused by toxic chemicals released into the environment through the use of chemicals in the handling and processing of food.
In Mayan outbreak of a previously unknown syndrome began to appear in the working-class suburbs of Madrid. Over 20, persons were ultimately involved. By Junepatients had died around 16 deaths per 1, cases. Initially, the clinical features included interstitial pneumonitis, diverse skin rashes, lymphadenopathies, intense eosinophilia, and gastro-intestinal symptoms.
Nearly one-fourth of those who survived the acute phase required later hospitalization for neuromuscular alterations. One month after the occurrence of the first cases, the illness was found to be associated with the consumption of inexpensive denatured rapeseed oil, sold in unlabelled plastic containers and usually acquired from itinerant salesmen.
The warning issued by the Spanish government against the consumption of the suspected oil caused a dramatic fall in the number of hospitalizations from toxic pneumonitis Gilsanz et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs were involved in other widely reported accidental mass food poisonings in Japan Masuda and Yoshimura and in Taiwan Chen et al.
On 1 Novembershortly after midnight, a fire developed in a warehouse operated by the multinational pharmaceutical company Sandoz in Schweizerhalle, 10 km southeast of Basel, and some 30 tons of the chemicals stored in the warehouse were drained along with water from the fire-fighting into the nearby River Rhine.
Severe ecological damage occurred over a length of about km. Apart from symptoms of irritation reported in the parts of the Basel area reached by gases and vapours produced by the fire, no cases of serious illness were reported.
Nonetheless, this accident triggered serious concern in at least four European countries Switzerland, France, Germany, The Netherlands. Transnationality applies not only to consequences and harm caused by disasters, but also to their remote causes.
Bhopal might serve as an example. Businesses facing the tightening of regulations in industrial countries may export hazardous industries to world regions where less stringent measures for protection of the environment and public health exist.
Industrial activities become concentrated in existing urban settlements and add significantly to the pressure caused by overcrowding and shortages of community services. Such activities are distributed between a small highly organized sector and a large unorganized sector; governmental controls in regard to labour and environmental safety in the latter sector are less stringent Krishna Murti Be familiar with natural disaster risks in your community.
Consider how you will respond to emergencies that can happen anywhere, such as home fires and floods. Russia is an adversary, but they are not threatening the very existence of the United States. China is. Iran is.
North Korea was. Shares.
(b) Appointments. A list, in reverse chronological order, of all the individual's academic/professional appointments beginning with the current appointment. Research on disasters is problematic.
Disasters, by nature, are intermittent and arrive unexpectedly, although in some cases with some warning. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Project Gutenberg's Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.