When professional mental health clinicians are asked to figure out what is wrong with a patient, they assess that patient broadly, using something they call the "bio-psycho-social" model as a guide. The bio-psycho-social model assumes that mental health problems are hardly ever limited to just one domain of human experience say, just a "mental" problem. For instance, someone who is depressed, might have become that way because of a medical condition such as a heart attacka social condition such as losing a loved oneor a psychological condition such as an overly self-critical nature. Further, regardless of the cause of the condition, that person's depression will likely show physical symptoms such as slowed speech and lessened appetitepsychological symptoms such as suicidal thoughts and social symptoms such as social withdrawal.
Yet a good deal of research indicates that these factors do not affect health independently but interact among themselves and with biological systems.
The study of psychosocial and biological interactions, referred to as biopsychosocial or biobehavioral research, has demonstrated profound effects on biological systems of an array of factors.
For instance, psychosocial and behavioral factors have been shown to affect organ systems e. Examination of links to the biological level is critical to understanding health differences in late life because the biological level serves as the pathway to disease and death.
A number of studies have found significant racial and ethnic group differences in several biological measures, including the well-known differences in blood Bio psycho social, low-density and high-density cholesterol, and obesity, and, more recently, in response to pharmacological agents Burroughs et al.
Biological factors should not be studied in isolation but as part of a system in which psychosocial, behavioral, and environmental factors lead to potentially pathogenic changes, in ways that may vary by racial or ethnic group. Page 87 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press.
These mechanisms include physiological reactivity, allostatic load, psychoneuroimmunology, metabolic syndrome, and neurovisceral integration. The changes most often studied, typically under laboratory conditions, involve cardiovascular reactivity e. The hypothesis is that frequently activated and exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stress raise resting blood pressure levels over time and damage coronary arteries Matthews et al.
The strongest evidence for this hypothesis comes from animal experiments that demonstrate an etiological role for stress-induced reactivity in both coronary heart disease Manuck et al. Among humans there is evidence that individuals at risk for hypertension—due to a family history or older age, being black or having borderline hypertension—may also exhibit cardiovascular hyperreactivity to stress Turner et al.
There is also emerging evidence in humans that cardiovascular reactivity among healthy individuals may be prospectively related to later hypertension Carroll et al.
Finally, research is emerging on a possible negative correlation between socioeconomic status and reactivity Gump et al. In a new line of research on reactivity, acute psychological stress has been shown to elicit myocardial ischemia, an imbalance between the blood supply to the heart and the demands placed on it to supply the body with oxygenated blood.
Myocardial ischemia may result in angina pain, but it is frequently silent, occurring without pain. Psychological stress has been shown to produce silent ischemia in the laboratory; such responses are predictive of ischemia in real life, as measured by ambulatory cardiac recording Blumenthal et al.
In patients with a history of heart disease, ischemia induced by psychological stress is prospectively related to subsequent cardiac events Jiang et al. A number of studies have explored differences between blacks and whites in stress-induced reactivity as a possible reason for group differences in hypertension.
These studies generally find a tendency among black adults and children toward greater peripheral vascular responses to stress in comparison with whites Anderson, Blacks show greater cardiovascular responses in laboratory research to stimuli associated with racism e.
Blacks also show greater blood pressure reactivity than whites to discrimination and unfair treatment Guyll et al. However, the contribution of such responses to black-white differences in the prevalence of hypertension has not been determined.
The concept of allostatic load incorporates the notion of physiological reactivity, but it also includes other physiological changes that might be pathogenic. Those changes include having a chronically high level of resting physiological activity e. In essence, allostatic load represents a cumulative, multisystems perspective on physiological risk.
Recent research on the Macarthur Successful Aging Cohort indicates that high levels of allostatic load predict morbidity and mortality among older adults. For instance, Seeman et al. Allostatic load scores have been found to be higher among persons with lower educational attainment and higher levels of hostility than average, suggesting a potential role for allostatic load in the greater disease risk in these populations Kubzansky et al.
To date, racial and ethnic group differences in allostatic load and the role of such differences in health differences have not been explored. It is now well established that psychological factors, especially chronic stress, can lead to impairments in immune system Page 89 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In several studies of older adults, those who are providing care for a relative with dementia report high levels of stress and exhibit significant impairments in immune system functioning when compared with noncaregivers Kiecolt-Glaser et al.
Stress-induced changes in the immune system may affect a number of outcomes, including slowing the wound healing process and increasing susceptibility to infections Cohen and Williamson, ; Cohen et al.
To date, there have been few if any published studies on racial and ethnic group differences in stress-induced immunosuppression and into the role it may play in health differences.
The metabolic syndrome has been prospectively linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality Baillie et al. Research has uncovered some racial and ethnic differences in metabolic syndrome and its components.
In particular, blacks exhibit higher levels of central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and glucose intolerance than whites Adams-Campbell et al.
Research on the relationship of psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome is emerging, and there is some evidence of a significant link. For example, Brunner and associates have found an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome, a connection that might be mediated by heightened sympathetic nervous system activity Brunner et al.
In a prospective analysis of older men, Vitaliano et al. Research has not determined whether racial or ethnic differences in metabolic syndrome are mediated by stress or other psychosocial factors or the role of metabolic syndrome in different disease outcomes by group. The model complements and extends previous biopsychosocial models, positing a common element among them:Bio Psycho Social Spiritual Treatment Plan The Bio Psycho Social Spiritual formulation can guide the treatment planning process.
We want all of your treatment plans, in this course and in our clerkship, to include comment in all of the areas specified below. Bio-Psycho-Social Tree of Life Biological Assessment Obtained from the physician and the client’s self-report Social worker should inquire about the clients health.
CONFIDENTIAL CARE Rev. 07/25/ Page 1 of 7 1. The Biopsychosocial Assessment template helps to design the social and psychological assessment reports properly in a correct format and layout.
The assessment template helps to keep in mind, the important point and the key elements which are to be included while making the initiativeblog.com may also see informal assessments.
A biopsychosocial approach that incorporates the dynamic interaction of physiological variables, social context, and psychological factors, because the reality is that these are not isolated systems but intimately interdependent.
|Biopsychosocial Perspective definition | Psychology Glossary | initiativeblog.com||Usually it takes the form of a series of questions asked by health care professionals. The assessment is used to create a comprehensive picture of the patient in order to map out treatment goals.|
|Literature Abstract||This approach is called holistic because it posits that separate issues are often related.|
|Project: Bio-Psycho-Social Assessment | Assignment Essays||Is it okay to have been me?|
|Gun Violence: A Biopsychosocial Disease. | PubFacts||Cigarette advertising uses images to portray smokers as independent, healthy, adventure-seeking, and attractive IOM, b. However, the vast majority of marketing dollars are spent on promotional activities, such as sponsoring sports events and public entertainment and distributing T-shirts, hats, and other items that provide free advertising by prominently displaying the companies" logos.|
|Understanding Schizophrenia Based on the Biopsychosocial Model||Bio-Psycho Social-Spiritual Model Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences In all our teaching, we invite students to conceptualize patient problems by using a bio-psycho-social-spiritual formulation. This model is used throughout our curriculum in psychiatry.|
a combination of biopsychosocial influences. Researchers face the challenge of explaining diverse alcohol-related behavior ranging from simple alcohol experimentation to severe alcohol dependence. Clearly, different factors may in- Psychosocial Factors in Alcohol Use and Alcoholism).