He received his birth nameafter his biological fatherin 63 BC. After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions. Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius "Son of the Divine" to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar.
Legitimacy[ edit ] This article is about legitimate Roman emperors. For other individuals claiming the title of Emperor, see List of Roman usurpers. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists.
In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation.
Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants.
By the medieval or "Byzantine" period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication. Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position.
Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor' 1. Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor 1and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor 2.
Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor 3at least during the Principate. So for instance, Aurelianthough acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between — AD, and thus was a legitimate emperor.
Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of the legitimate emperor Valerian.
Claudius Gothicusthough acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperorsall claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included.
There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right typically the child of an emperor ; these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the 'senior' emperor.
Emperors after [ edit ] Afterthe list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor. The situation in the West is more complex.
Throughout the final years of the Western Empire — the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor. Furthermore, after the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all.
For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire;  some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not.
For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized. However, he was traditionally considered the "last Roman Emperor" by 18th and 19th century western scholars and his overthrow by Odoacer used as the marking point between historical epochs, and as such he is usually included in regnal lists.
However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures.Lecture 12 Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana: On the morning of March 15, 44 B.C., JULIUS CAESAR was assassinated by several members of the Roman Senate.
This was just one month after he had declared himself dictator of the Roman world. NOTE.—Many of these chief provinces were subdivided into smaller provinces. each under a separate governor—making the total number of provincial governors more than one hundred.
SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present.
Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).
Introduction The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. ) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else.
In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning.
In the year 19 BCE, he was given Imperium Maius (supreme power) over every province in the Roman Empire and, from that time on, Augustus Caesar ruled supremely, the first emperor of Rome and the measure by which all later emperors would be judged. By 2 BCE Augustus was declared Pater Patriae, the father of his country.
How were the titles Emperor, Augustus & Caesar different? How was a Governor different to a Pro consul? How were the titles Emperor, Augustus & Caesar different?
How was a Governor different to a Pro consul? (initiativeblog.comtorians) submitted 4 years ago by lazerbeat. The reigning emperors were Imperator Caesar Augustus.