It would appear that the proliferation of organized interests has not remedied inequalities, then, and scholars have begun to explore the possibility that interest groups may, at least in some cases, serve as conduits through which inequalities intensify. Critiques of the interest group system are numerous and diverse in scope. These critiques serve as the basis for this essay. In this article, I outline the major works that, whether directly or indirectly, explore and explain the ways in which some interest group organizations—defined here to encompass corporations, political advocacy groups, nonprofit organizations, unions, political action committees, and more—have contributed to growing inequalities even as in some cases they attempt to confront them.
References and Further Reading 1. Biography and History Aristotle's life was primarily that of a scholar. However, like the other ancient philosophers, it was not the stereotypical ivory tower existence.
Clearly, Aristotle had significant firsthand experience with politics, though scholars disagree about how much influence, if any, this experience had on Aristotle's thought. There is certainly no evidence that Alexander's subsequent career was much influenced by Aristotle's teaching, which is uniformly critical of war and conquest as goals for human beings and which praises the intellectual, contemplative lifestyle.
It is noteworthy that although Aristotle praises the politically active life, he spent most of his own life in Athens, where he was not a citizen and would not have been allowed to participate directly in politics although of course anyone who wrote as extensively and well about politics as Aristotle did was likely to be politically influential.
As a scholar, Aristotle had a wide range of interests. He wrote about meteorology, biology, physics, poetry, logic, rhetoric, and politics and ethics, among other subjects. His writings on many of these interests remained definitive for almost two millennia.
They remained, and remain, so valuable in part because of the comprehensiveness of his efforts. For example, in order to understand political phenomena, he had his students collect information on the political organization and history of different cities.
The question of how these writings should be unified into a consistent whole if that is even possible is an open one and beyond the scope of this article.
This article will not attempt to organize all of Aristotle's work into a coherent whole, but will draw on different texts as they are necessary to complete one version of Aristotle's view of politics. The Texts The most important text for understanding Aristotle's political philosophy, not surprisingly, is the Politics.
However, it is also important to read Nicomachean Ethics in order to fully understand Aristotle's political project. This is because Aristotle believed that ethics and politics were closely linked, and that in fact the ethical and virtuous life is only available to someone who participates in politics, while moral education is the main purpose of the political community.
As he says in Nicomachean Ethics at b30, "The end [or goal] of politics is the best of ends; and the main concern of politics is to engender a certain character in the citizens and to make them good and disposed to perform noble actions. We are likely to regard politics and politicians as aiming at ignoble, selfish ends, such as wealth and power, rather than the "best end", and many people regard the idea that politics is or should be primarily concerned with creating a particular moral character in citizens as a dangerous intrusion on individual freedom, in large part because we do not agree about what the "best end" is.
In fact, what people in Western societies generally ask from politics and the government is that they keep each of us safe from other people through the provision of police and military forces so that each of us can choose and pursue our own ends, whatever they may be. This has been the case in Western political philosophy at least since John Locke.
Development of individual character is left up to the individual, with help from family, religion, and other non-governmental institutions. More will be said about this later, but the reader should keep in mind that this is an important way in which our political and ethical beliefs are not Aristotle's.
The reader is also cautioned against immediately concluding from this that Ar istotle was wrong and we are right. This may be so, but it is important to understand why, and the contrast between Aristotle's beliefs and ours can help to bring the strengths and weaknesses of our own beliefs into greater clarity.
The reference above to "Nicomachean Ethics at b30" makes use of what is called Bekker pagination. This refers to the location of beginning of the cited text in the edition of Aristotle's works produced by Immanuel Bekker in Berlin in in this case, it begins on pagecolumn b, line Scholars make use of this system for all of Aristotle's works except the Constitution of Athens which was not rediscovered until after and fragmentary works in order to be able to refer to the same point in Aristotle's work regardless of which edition, translation, or language they happen to be working with.
This entry will make use of the Bekker pagination system, and will also follow tradition and refer to Nicomachean Ethics as simply Ethics. There is also a Eudemian Ethics which is almost certainly by Aristotle and which shares three of the ten books of the Nicomachean Ethics and a work on ethics titled Magna Moralia which has been attributed to him but which most scholars now believe is not his work.Return to Responses, Reflections and Occasional Papers // Return to Historical Writings.
Reflections on Ellen Schrecker and Maurice Isserman's essay, "The Right's Cold War Revision". Types of Interest Groups Few would argue that one person could not make a difference in American politics.
But there is power in numbers, and political institutions are more likely to respond to a collective rather than to an individual voice. Multivariate analysis indicates that economic elites and organized groups representing business interests have substantial independent impacts on U.S. government policy, while average citizens and mass-based interest groups have little or no independent influence.
The purpose of this essay is to adequately depict the current conflict in Darfur and discuss the effects that the Darfur Conflict has had on the neighboring countries, the Horn of Africa region and U.S. interest. Interest groups representing racial and ethnic minorities are central to civil rights politics.
Minority interest groups have mainly pursued a strategy of sponsor ing litigation because the federal courts are insulated from electoral politics. General Overviews. While a detailed summary of the group-centered, “pluralist” tradition of political research lies beyond the scope of this article, pluralism’s critics have laid perhaps the richest theoretical foundations for how interest group politics enhance inequality in the United States.