National science writers 2012 presidential candidates

By Richa Chaturvedi Hillary Clinton is now officially the first woman to top the ticket of a major U.

National science writers 2012 presidential candidates

Even though the presentation of candidates and the electoral campaign are the functions that are most visible to the electorate, political parties fulfill many other vital roles in a democratic society.

They are also institutionalized mediators between civil society and the duly-elected representatives who decide and implement policy. For example, political party-affiliated legislators who meet with civil society representatives to solicit individual or organizational opinion in the public policy formulation process.

Key tasks of political parties include the following: Overall, however, it is internal processes that are the deciding factor in this process. Factors that influence a political party from within include the personality of party leaders and staff, the ideological foundations, party history, and internal political culture.

Many parties also work actively to enhance the role of traditionally under-represented groups in their parties. Even if independent candidates cannot contest an election, there might still be persons in the legislature who are no longer affiliated with a political party and who wish to run for elected office.

Countries have different rules as to what happens to a parliamentary seat if the person who holds it leaves or is expelled from his or her political party. In some countries, the representative can keep the seat, while in others the seat is filled by the political party, remains vacant, or is filled through a by-election.

From another perspective, the final validation of the election result is in practice in the hands of the political parties and candidates. If they do not accept the results due to real or perceived electoral fraud or irregularities, the legitimacy of the resulting legislature or government is threatened.

Likewise, the voting public—whether affiliated with a particular party through membership or not—must perceive and believe that the results officially declared after Election Day are valid and represent the expressed willing of the electorate.

Parties and candidates are also actors that have the potential to be destructive. Practices of vote-buying or illegal party finance, the proliferation of defamation and hate speech in campaigns, voter intimidation by party workers, corruption in decision-making, and the systematic exclusion of certain sectors of the society constitute examples of where political parties threaten the functioning of democratic systems rather than support it.

Laws and regulations regarding campaigning, funding, and functioning of political parties are developed to minimize the potential disruptive influence of political parties while still allowing them enough freedom to contest elections.

Rwanda is an example of the new trend to use electoral gender quotas as a fast track to gender balance in politics.

The electoral system is an important factor determining how votes cast translate into an electoral mandate, but the choices of parties and candidates in campaigning, coalition-building, and pre-electoral alliances also have an impact on the final result.

Fresh Food Bites

The ties between elected representatives and their political parties, the internal functioning of their parties, and the training and resources available to them help shape legislation, budgets, and government policies.

Guiding Principles The following principles guide legislation and practices regarding political parties and candidates. The first three derive directly from basic civil and political rights, while the other seven relate to what is needed in practice for a political system to function democratically.

Freedom of organisation In this context, the freedom of organisation refers to the freedom to form and join political parties and other political organisations. This may be either as an independent candidate or as a candidate of a political party or other organisation.

It is critical to ensure that the restrictions on and process of nomination are clearly stated in the electoral law.Key People-President Barack Obama Obama for America, One Prudential Plaza, Chicago, IL [] campaign organization (page updated and corrected March 26, ) Note to readers: This page is currently being upgraded.

Please help make it better.

national science writers 2012 presidential candidates

Sep 03,  · Going into the Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, Sen. John F.

Recent Posts

Kennedy of Massachusetts was the front-runner, but did not have a . Many notable people and groups formally endorsed or voiced support for President Barack Obama's presidential re-election campaign during the Democratic Party primaries and the general election.

Key People-President Barack Obama Obama for America, One Prudential Plaza, Chicago, IL [] campaign organization (page updated and corrected March 26, ) Note to readers: This page is currently being upgraded. Please help make it better.

national science writers 2012 presidential candidates

The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more. Candidates.

The following individuals filed with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and/or announced their intentions to seek the presidential nomination of the Republican Party. In this table, those marked lighter grey were not featured in any televised debates that occurred while their respective campaigns were active; those marked darker grey were excluded from the majority of those.

List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, - Wikipedia