The battles of inequality through the centuries

Tweet How a better Middle East would look International borders are never completely just. But the degree of injustice they inflict upon those whom frontiers force together or separate makes an enormous difference — often the difference between freedom and oppression, tolerance and atrocity, the rule of law and terrorism, or even peace and war.

The battles of inequality through the centuries

Learning Objective Summarize understandings of the family as presented by functional, conflict, and social interactionist theories. It socializes children, it provides emotional and practical support for its members, it helps regulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction, and it provides its members with a social identity.

Conflict The family contributes to social inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and by reinforcing patriarchy.

The family can also be a source of conflict, including physical violence and emotional cruelty, for its own members. Symbolic interactionism The interaction of family members and intimate couples involves shared understandings of their situations.

Wives and husbands have different styles of communication, and social class affects the expectations that spouses have of their marriages and of each other. Romantic love is the common basis for American marriages and dating relationships, but it is much less common in several other contemporary nations.

Social Functions of the Family Recall that the functional perspective emphasizes that social institutions perform several important functions to help preserve social stability and otherwise keep a society working.

A functional understanding of the family thus stresses the ways in which the family as a social institution helps make society possible. As such, the family performs several important functions. First, the family is the primary unit for socializing children.

The battles of inequality through the centuries

As previous chapters indicated, no society is possible without adequate socialization of its young. In most societies, the family is the major unit in which socialization happens. Parents, siblings, and, if the family is extended rather than nuclear, other relatives all help socialize children from the time they are born.

One of the most important functions of the family is the socialization of children. In most societies the family is the major unit through which socialization occurs. Second, the family is ideally a major source of practical and emotional support for its members. It provides them food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials, and it also provides them love, comfort, help in times of emotional distress, and other types of intangible support that we all need.

Third, the family helps regulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction. All societies have norms governing with whom and how often a person should have sex.

The family is the major unit for teaching these norms and the major unit through which sexual reproduction occurs. One reason for this is to ensure that infants have adequate emotional and practical care when they are born.

The incest taboo that most societies have, which prohibits sex between certain relatives, helps minimize conflict within the family if sex occurred among its members and to establish social ties among different families and thus among society as a whole.

Fourth, the family provides its members with a social identity. As we have seen in earlier chapters, social identity is important for our life chances. Any shift in this arrangement, they warned, would harm children and by extension the family as a social institution and even society itself.

Textbooks no longer contain this warning, but many conservative observers continue to worry about the impact on children of working mothers and one-parent families. We return to their concerns shortly. The Family and Conflict Conflict theorists agree that the family serves the important functions just listed, but they also point to problems within the family that the functional perspective minimizes or overlooks altogether.

First, the family as a social institution contributes to social inequality in several ways. Because families pass along their wealth to their children, and because families differ greatly in the amount of wealth they have, the family helps reinforce existing inequality.

Second, the family can also be a source of conflict for its own members.No matter your gender Yet. as Netflix's This chapter assesses the history of government efforts in the United States to enhance opportunity in education and to suggest lessons from the past We focus The same skin color hierarchy permeated the Western culture during the battles of inequality through the centuries the seventeenth and.

driving income inequality lies in simultaneously explaining the pre-fisc inequality, the inequality of political voice, and government redistribution between rich and poor.

A Historical Perspective

The Great Leveller: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century By Walter Scheidel.

Princeton University Press; pages; $35 and £ AS A supplier of momentary relief, the Great Depression seems an unlikely candidate. A DISSERTATION ON THE ORIGIN AND FOUNDATION OF THE INEQUALITY OF MANKIND.

IT is of man that I have to speak; and the question I am investigating shows me that it is to men that I must address myself: for questions of this sort are not asked by those who are afraid to honour truth.

I shall then confidently uphold the cause of humanity before the wise men who invite me to do so, and shall . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.

Equality One measure of equality suggested by the British sociologist T.H. Marshall is “citizenship” - the “basic human equality associated with full membership of a community.” African American history, from bondage through the civil rights movement, is often seen through the political lens as a struggle for citizenship and full membership in American society.

Rousseau: Social Contract: Book III