This is part 2 in a series on why some countries remain poor. Climate One of the most important factors in development is geography, where the country is in the world, and climate.
Conversely, Europe and North America profit from huge tracts of very fertile land, a temperate climate, and good rainfall.
In extremes of climate, either hot or cold, too much energy goes into the simple business of survival for there to be much leftover energy for development. You have to work twice as hard to get enough to eat out of the ground, you have to irrigate where others can depend on rainfall.
It may be too hot to work between 11 and 2, so you lose three hours out of every day. Rain patterns may give you a short growing season, while others can get two harvests in one year.
Some countries are just at a natural disadvantage. Location Secondly, geographical location plays a part in access to markets. All the great empires have been based around trade routes, and these are almost always maritime.
There are notable exceptions, the medieval Mongol empire was based on the Silk Road from China to the west, but Jeffrey Sachs sums it up well in his important book The End of Poverty: With ports you can raise money through tolls and shipping services.
If you have no access to the coast, not only do you miss out on these services, you have to transport everything by land, which is much more expensive. Ice-bound on its northern coastlines, Russian has squabbled for centuries over access to a warm water port, the Crimean War being the most serious.
Countries like Afghanistan, Rwanda, Malawi, or Bolivia are all hindered by access to ports. Other countries, like Ethiopia or Lesotho, are not only landlocked, but mountainous as well, making trade even more expensive. Resources Thirdly, every country has been dealt a hand in natural resources.
It takes infrastructure to capitalise on these, but some places have a distinct advantage over others. Oil is the most obvious.
Among other advantages, gold and diamonds have helped South Africa build the most successful economy on the continent. Besides these there are renewable resources — forests, fish, stocks that, if correctly managed, will refresh themselves.
Much South American development has been based on the Amazon rainforest, in natural rubber and then timber. These are renewables that need no management, wind, tide and solar resources. No natural resource is a license to print money, and there are plenty of poor countries who are rich in resources, but it is a factor.
Stability Finally, environmental stability can be a factor in development.
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|IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:||Japan's Geography 1 A country's geography influences the development of its society and culture in many ways. Its location in relation to other nations has an effect on intercultural influences; its size affects demography, the development of social structures, and its position in the international community.|
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Some countries are more stable than others. Where I grew up in Madagascar, the annual cyclone season regularly swept away roads and bridges, damaged railways and refineries, and took the roofs of houses and hotels all along the east coast. How do you build and sustain infrastructure in those conditions?At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography, human geography, geographic techniques, and regional geography.
Physical Geography The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems.
nation. More detailed directions for the organization of the rating process Geographic features have influenced the historical and cultural development of civilizations, empires, countries, and regions of the world.
*The term create as used by Anderson/Krathwohl, et al. in their revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of. Can you think of other geographic features that would have a major effect on the Knowing their armies must invade, Union military advisers devised a plan to divide the South. Microsoft Word - Influence of Geo on War initiativeblog.com Author: Susan.
The National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis leads research into the fundamental design and operations of GISs, as well as related efforts (e.g., the Alexandria Project) to develop methodologies and tools for the creation of a digital spatial ''library." Anticipating these changes in all their geographic complexity is.
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across initiativeblog.com also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment, and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people..
Geography seeks to understand where things. Influence of Geography on Indian History Article shared by: To form a holistic image of India, – an attempt to understand and appreciate the role of geography and ecology in molding the character and psyche of Indians is necessary.